Kreschatik is the main street of Kiev. It passes through 3 squares — among them is Maydan Nezalejnosti (Independence Square), the main square of the city. During the days off the car traffic is closed and the street is pedestrian.
Several hundreds years ago on this place was overgrown by trees deep valley, with a small stream flowing along it. This valley was called «Kreschatiy Yar» that is where the name of the street comes from. There was a road along the stream which leaded towards the Dnieper.
From the 18 century this road started to build up and changed into street. There was situated the houses of rich townsmen and administrative building of Kiev power authorities. In 1914 Kreschatik was fully build up by solid wall of houses — in majority it were three-storey buildings of shops, restaurants, hotels, banks and offices. All business, trading and administrative life of the city started to move on Kreschatik. Here were electricity, water pipe, gas, sewer system, and from 1892 ran first in tsarist Russia tramway.
During the World War II Kreschatik was almost fully destroyed, remained only the block of buildings near Bessarabian marketplace. In 1948 the plan of Kreschatik reconstruction was approved — new architectural ensemble had been formed, the street was broaden and from one side the chestnut tree terrace was formed. Thanks to this Kreschatik is especially beautiful in spring when chestnuts are blossoming.
Up to the end of X century this place and the whole Kreschatik was the forest thicket. Later here appeared Lyadskie Vorota — one of Kiev gates which opened the way to the upper city.
First buildings appeared here in the middle of 19 century. On the square was open-air market and circus performances took place. In the 1876 the there was constructed the building of town council. In 1913 on the square appeared the monument to the tsar prime minister Stolypin.
Аfter the October revolution in 1917 the monument was destroyed and the square took the name of Kalinin. During the World War II almost all buildings of the square was destroyed. The new building ensemble was created. In the
After Ukraine became a sovereign state the square was renamed into Independence Square. In 2001 the square was reconstructed again — instead of revolution monument the Independence monument was placed — the girl in Ukrainian national dress standing on high column — she is holding in hands snowball tree branch. Under the square now is situated trade center «Globus».
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